Kamis, 20 Juni 2013


One cause of death in newly hatched piyik walnut is the appearance of black spots or black spots on the abdomen. This black spot can appear in puppies as young walnuts 1-5 days, but can also in walnut walnuts young age 2-9 months. Black spots appeared at the time of the spleen and / or liver become enlarged due to infection. In addition, this black spot can also occur in all kinds of walnuts, and can spread from one variety to the other varieties.
The two main causes of the emergence of black spots is circovirus and coccidian parasites that cause disease atoxoplasmosis. Other causes such as oronithosis, Septicaemias bacteria and other blood parasites like avian malaris (Plasmodium), and Trypanosoma Haemoprotues.
Research in Germany some time ago mentioned, Mycoplasma became the main cause of black spots on the European red mite-borne, flies and sparrows infected by blood parasites.
Black spot and circovirus
Circovirus has been suspected as a major cause of black spot that kills walnut piyikan aged 1-5 days. Black spot caused by circovirus appears on the right side of the abdomen birds patients.
Clinical symptoms seen among others piyikan become weak and fail / sullit receive lolohan feed from its mother. As a result, the cache will be empty and eventually die after 3-4 days piyik attacked. Black spot caused by circovirus is still difficult to cure.
Black spot and mycoplasma infections
As described earlier, the German study actually found a correlation between the appearance of black spots and mycoplasma infections in canaries. Vector germs include other birds, a type of infected birds, mites, mosquitoes, and flies.
Tylosine use on the prospective parent before the parent and the pairing could prevent future piyiknya of possible Mycoplasma infection. This therapy is used in order to eliminate mycoplasma infection from breeding cage and control black spot during the bird breeding in the breeding cage.
Black spot and atoxoplasmosis
Atoxoplasmosis is a disease that often strikes canaries, sparrows, finches and other species, and birds of the starling family-jalakan like starlings suren and Bali starlings. The cause is a coccidian parasite Isospora species Serini. So different from coccidiosis disease (dysentery) caused by other types coccidian parasite, Isospora canaria ie. If coccidiosis is limited to the intestinal epithelium, then atoxoplasmosis multiply in the intestine, invade blood cells, then spread in the bloodstream to infect the liver, lungs, and spleen.
Atoxoplasmosis infection produces dark patches on either side of the abdomen, a sign that showed an enlarged spleen and liver. This black spot symptoms can appear in young birds with less than 1 year old. As adults, it is likely that once infected birds remain infected, but not seen by the physical signs. Infected adult birds will continue to bring these communicable desease for 8 months.
The clinical symptoms that can be seen on piyikan or infected young walnut among others always tired, often huddled with developing feathers, often approaching the lamp / light with the goal of her body warm, bloated stomach, diarrhea, bloating, and sometimes show signs neurological (nerve disorder).
Mortality rate can reach 80% of a flock of young birds in the colony cage or aviary, where the infection of the disease spread more quickly, especially if the cage is full of young bird colonies.
Carrier sires infection
Birds infected broodstock expected to infect piyik-piyiknya when he gives food. Both male and female birds birds could likely be a vector of the spread of the disease, although more often than females, because they are often overfeed their children.
Breeding birds were likely to be re-infected by the bacteria themselves, black spot (oocysts), while cleaning the nest of feces. The black spots are more common in the breeding nest for the first time nesting. Likewise with breeders over the age of 3 years are known to be susceptible to black spot disease.
Control and prevention
Until now there is no drug that is effectively able to eliminate black spots or black spots. The best way is known to destroy the infected birds, before already infecting other members of the colony.
You can also do some of the following precautions, so that no black spot appeared in the breeding cage:
Quarantining new birds that come for a few days in quarantine cages, before together with the other birds in the breeding cage.
Keep cleaning the cage once a week routine spraying disinfectant. Specifically to address fleas, mites (including red mites), bacteria, fungi, and parasites, you can use FreshAves once a week, which also serves as a disinfectant.
Make sure the bird is always in good shape, especially obtaining sufficient vitamin. If still in doubt with vitamins in feed given to walnuts, you can add BirdVit into the drinking water of birds, at least 2x a week.
Always keep the feed ingredients such as grains, beans sprouts, egg food, and other feed to prevent infection from the bacterium Escherichia coli.

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